Periodontal treatment usually aims at removal of plaque and bacterial debris from teeth and gums.
Treatment protocol usually depends on how severe the gum disease is and will range from regular prophylaxis / teeth cleaning to periodontal surgery.
If the gum disease is severe your dentist or hygienist will advise you to go for a deep professional cleaning in the dental office. During this procedure your dentist will remove the plaque and tar-tar down from each of those gum pockets; it is usually done over several visits and depends on the individual case.
Furthermore your dentist will smooth out the root surfaces of teeth to allow the gums to heal and reattach to teeth. The dental care provider might recommend you some medications too to control infection, reduce pain and aid in healing.
Sometimes if your gums do not heal even after deep cleaning, then your case might be up for periodontal surgery. It helps your periodontist / general dentist who regularly do such procedures to remove plaque and tar-tar from hard to reach places.
In case there is loss of bone or gum tissue due to a periodontal disease, your periodontist / general dentist will place a bone graft or gum graft and use appliances like splints for holding loose teeth in proper position.